Traditionally JavaScript is the only mainstream language with prototype-based inheritance. Programmers switching to JS from class-based language found it puzzling, but ES2015 introduced classes, which are just syntactic sugar over the inner working, but changed a lot how we built JavaScript programs.

Now inheritance is very easy and resembles other object-oriented programming language:
        class Person {
    contructor(name){ = name
            return ‘hello, Iam’ + ‘.’
            class Actor extend Person{
    return super.hello()+ ‘I am an actor.’
            var tomCruise = new Actor(‘Tom Cruise’)
        tomCruise.hello() code-box
(the above program prints “Hello, I am Tom Cruise. I am an actor.”) alert-info
Classes do not have explicit class variable declarations, but you must initialize any variable in the constructor.


Classes have a special method called constructor which is called when a class is initialized via new.


The parent class can be referenced using super().

Getters and Setters

A getter for a property can be declared as
class Person{
get fullName(){
return `${this.firtsName} ${this.lasName}`
} code-box
Setters are written in the same way:
class Person{
        set age(years){
this.theAge = years
} code-box


Before ES2015, there were at  least 3 major modules competing standards, which fragmented the community:
  • AMD
  • RequireJS
  • CommonJS
ES2015 standardized these into a common format.

Importing Modules

Importing is done via the import … from … construct:
import + from ‘mymodule;
import React from ‘react’
import { react, Componenent} from ‘react’
        import React as MyLibrary from ‘react’ code-box

Exporting modules

You can write modules and export anything to other modules using the export keyword:
export var foo = 2
        export function bar(){ /*…*/} code-box

Template Literals

Template literals are a new syntax to create string:
const aString = `A string` code-box

They provide a way to embed expressions into string, effectively interpolating the values, by using the ${a_variable} syntax:
const var = ‘test’
        const string = `something ${var}` //something test code-box

You can perform more complex expressions as well:
const string = `something ${1 + 2 + 3}`
        const string2 = `something ${foo() ? ‘x’ : ‘y’}` code-box

And strings can span over multiple lines:        
const string3 = `Hey

        is awesome!` code-box

Compare how we used to do multiline string pre-ES2015:
var str = ‘One\n’ + 
‘Two\n’ + 
        ‘Three’ code-box

Default Parameters

Functions now support default parameters:
const foo =  function(index = 0, testing = true){/* … */}
        foo() code-box

The spread operator

You can expand an array, an object or a string using the spread operator.
Let’s start with an array example. Given
const a = [1,2,3] code-box

You can create a new array using
const b = […a,4,5,6] code-box

You can also create a copy of an array using
const c = […a] code-box

This work for object as well. Clone an object with:
const newObj = {…oldObj} code-box

Using strings, the spread operator creates an array with each char in the string:
const hey = ‘hey’
        const arrayized = […hey] // [ ‘h’, ’e’, ’y’] code-box

This operator has some pretty useful applications. The most important one is the ability to use an array as function argument in a very simple way:
const f = (foo, bar) => {}
const a = [1, 2]
        f(…a) code-box
(in the past you could do this using f.apply(null, a) but that;s not a niche and readable) alert-info

Desctructuring assignments

Given an object, you can extract just some values and put them into name variables:
const Person = {
firstName: ‘Tom’,
lastName: ‘Cruise’,
actor: true,
age: 54,
                const (firstName: name,age) = person
        } code-box

Name and age contain the desired values.
The syntax also works on arrays:
const a = [1,2,3,4,5]
        [first, second, , ,fifth] = a code-box

Enhanced Object Literals

In ES2015 Object Literals gained superpowers.

Simpler syntax to include variabels

Instead of doing        
const something = ’y’
    const x = {
    something : something
        } code-box

You can do         
const something = ‘y’
    const x = {


A prototype can be specified with        
const anObject = { y: ‘y’}
    const x = {
    __proto__: anObject


const anObject = { y: ‘y’, test: () => ‘zoo’ }
const x = {
        __proto__: anObject,
                return super.test()+ ‘x’
        x.test() //zoox code-box

Dynamic properties        

const x = {
        [‘a’ + ‘_’ + ‘b’]: ‘z’
        x.a_b //z code-box

For-of loop

        ES5 back in 2009 introduced forEach() loops. While niche, they offered no way to break, like for loops always did. ES5 introduced the for-of loop, which combines the consiness of forEach with the ability to break:
for (const v of [‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’]){
        for (const [I, v] of [‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’].entries()){
    console.log(I, v)

Map and Set

        Map and Set (and their respective garbage collected Weakmap and WeakSet) are the official implementations of two very popular data structures.


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